Thursday, February 26, 2015

Aquarium : Sea water characteristics and information


The main difference between fresh water and sea water is that sea water contains a great many salts which give it certain specific characteristics, and these must be understood by any aquarist who wishes to keep marine fish.

Sea water Temperature

The temperature of tropical sea water varies little over the course of a day, or even a year. Furthermore, marine fish are generally more sensitive to abrupt changes than freshwater fish. The temperature in an aquarium must, therefore, be fairly stable, remaining at around 25-26°C.

Sea water Salinity

The most important salt found in sea water is sodium chloride (NaCl), widely used for domestic and culinary purposes, but there are plenty more. The salinity of water, i.e. the quantity of salts in the water, is expressed in 0/00 or in g/liter. The mean salinity of the Earth's oceans is around 350/00, or approximately 35 g salts/liter. Whatever its salinity, sea water boasts one remarkable property: the proportion of each element is constant.

Desalinated water does not therefore contain less of one or more salts, but the combination of salts is present in a lower concentration. The salinity of sea water varies according to longitude. It is at its highest in open seas in the tropics, it is lower near coasts and after heavy rain, and it is at its lowest near the poles (due to the influence of melting snow).

Sea water Density

In marine aquariums, it is not the salinity of water which is measured, but the density (often expressed as specific gravity, S.G.), which can be calculated according to the following formula:

There are no units of measurements. The saltier the water, the higher its density. The density also varies according to temperature (it goes down as the temperature goes up). The table overleaf shows the relationship between salinity and density with respect to temperature, which is relatively constant (25-26°C) in aquariums.

The density, expressed as specific gravity, a value which is easy to use, is all that is required to calculate salinity: it must range between 1.022 and 1.024.

MEASURING DENSITY 

Density is measured with a hydrometer, whose buoyancy increases as the water gets saltier. In the aquarium trade, most hydrometers also include a thermometer. The specific gravity at water level must be read with care; in fact, it is preferable to use the hydrometer outside the aquarium, as the movement of the water makes it difficult to read.

In this case, decant the water into a test tube or a transparent container (a PVC bottle, for example) and float the hydrometer in it. When it stops moving, read the value corresponding to the level of the water (1.023 in the diagram below, and not 1.022). To check whether your hydrometer is working properly, just measure the density of a distilled or very soft water: it must equal 1.000. THE CH

Unlike the general hardness (GH) which is used to describe fresh water, carbonate hardness (CH) is used in sea water, where it serves to measure the quantity of calcium and magnesium carbonates and bicarbonates present. This is crucial for maintaining the pH, and for growing corals, which have skeletons made of calcium carbonate.

PH VALUES 

As sea water is salty, its pH is therefore higher than that of fresh water. Pure sea water in the middle of the ocean has a pH of 8.3- Near the coasts, this drops to about 8 or a little less, as its dilution with fresh water lowers the salt content. The pH of sea water in an aquarium must vary between 8 and 8.5; beyond these values, animals will experience certain physiological problems.

Variations in pH in a marine aquarium Sea water contains a great deal of calcium carbonate and bicarbonate, and there are only slight variations in pH in a natural setting. It is a different matter in an aquarium, a restricted habitat operating as a closed cycle. The pH must not fall below 8, but a slow and regular decrease in this parameter may be seen.

Why? The water in an aquarium sometimes contains too much carbon dioxide, which has a tendency to lower the pH. What can you do? The first step is to measure the CH: - if it is under 7.2°CH, add calcium or replace some of the water. This situation is, however, fairly rare in an aquarium without corals, solely occupied by fish; - if it is over 7.2°CH, there is an excess of carbon dioxide. Stirring of the water must therefore be increased by using diffusers or an electric pump.

THE NITROGEN CYCLE 

This occurs in the same way in sea water and fresh water. In a marine aquarium the vegetation is often less abundant than in fresh water, and so the nitrates, the end products of the nitrogen cycle, will have a tendency to accumulate. At high doses these pose little danger to fish but are toxic for invertebrates, especially corals. It is therefore important to eliminate them by partial, but regular, water changes.

FINDING OUT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL WATER 

The European Union has set compulsory standards for drinking and environmental quality, but the strict legislation in the UK goes well beyond these. In England and Wales, for example, domestic water is monitored by the Drinking Water Inspectorate, which regularly checks up on the practices of the water companies and investigates any possible infringement of the law.

The Environment Agency, on the other hand, is responsible for the quality of water in rivers, estuaries, and coastal areas. It issues licenses to discharge waste into these waters and takes chemical and biological samples to monitor the effect on the environment. The results of these controls are available to the public.

Once a marine tank has been put into operation, the nitrogen cycle is slower to take effect than in a freshwater tank: around 3-4 weeks (although this is a generalization, as every aquarium is unique). Fish or other animals must not therefore be put into the water during this period, although the length of time can be reduced by various means, based on the principle of introducing bacteria.

In any event, measuring the nitrite levels is an excellent indicator of the progress of the nitrogen cycle. Once the water has been put into the tank, this parameter must be measured regularly; when the quantity of nitrites goes down close to zero, the nitrates appear and you only need to wait a few days before inserting the fish. Nevertheless, measuring the nitrites at regular intervals is still highly recommended, as long as the aquarium is in use.

OTHER DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES 

Sea water contains more than 60 elements, some of them in microscopic amounts: for example, there is 1 g/m3 of gold in sea water. All the solids dissolved in sea water serve a purpose, and that is why the salts that are used to reconstitute water must be of excellent quality.

Some substances can accumulate in sea water and in high concentrations give rise to concern. This is especially true in the case of organic matter, but it is possible to eliminate them by partially changing the water or using certain devices, such as an aerator marshes. Furthermore, good sea water cannot be reconstituted using poor quality fresh water.

Where and when to collect natural sea water? The ideal solution would be to go to the open sea, where the water is likely to be less polluted and to have more constant characteristics. Near the coasts, the following must be avoided: urbanized or industrialized areas and ports, which are susceptible to pollution; anywhere near river mouths, estuaries, or bays, where the water is desalted; and areas of stagnant sea water (pools at low tide) and salt marshes.

sea water characteristics collection of water from coastal
Coasts with sand dunes are suitable in principle, but the water is often laden with suspended sediment. Rocky coasts are preferable regions from where water can be collected. The best periods for collection are autumn and winter, because plankton develop in spring and tourism increases the risk of pollution in summer. Calm weather is preferable, in order to avoid suspended material, although a heavy swell reoxygenates the water.

In this case, the water can be collected 1-3 days later, the time in which the suspended material turns into sediment. However, the water must be filtered in all cases, first roughly and then more finely.



The reconstitution of artificial sea water The quality of the fresh water used is important: it must be as pure as possible. It is best to use water with a hardness of less than 8.4, although reconstitution is still possible with higher levels, providing the CH is equal to at least 75-80% of the general hardness value.

Take care to avoid water containing nitrates (often found in farming areas), to which invertebrates are very sensitive, or metals, toxic for some animals where present above certain limits. Making sea water in an aquarium, before putting it into operation Fill the aquarium with fresh water and aerate it for 24 hours. Calculate and weigh the quantity of salts to be dissolved, then introduce them into the aquarium. Then just aerate for another 24-48 hours and check the density, adjusting it as required.

ARTIFICIAL SALTS 

Several companies have special aquarium salts on the market, and it is even possible to find concentrated sea water. Some salts are intended for marine tanks for fishes, others for aquariums with invertebrates.

Their quality is satisfactory, although there are likely to be improvements in the future, and, as they are enriched with calcium, micronutrients, and vitamins, they are obviously relatively expensive. There have been no adverse reports to date about the use of these salts in aquariums: in those areas where accidents do occur, they are usually due to miscalculations on the part of the aquarist.

Making sea water for storage and back-up 

The method is the same, except that plastic food containers are generally used. The quantity of salt can be multiplied by three or four to manufacture concentrated water that will therefore occupy less storage space.

Adjusting the density 

• The density is too high Part of the water is siphoned off - this can be stored for later use - and the softest water available is added, taking care to measure the density. When the water level of a marine aquarium goes down because of evaporation, it is not the sea water which is evaporating but the fresh water, and it is therefore the latter which must be added to make up the level.

The addition of sea water would entail an increase in density.

 • The density is too low In this case, salts must be added. These must be dissolved beforehand in a container which is then gradually emptied into the aquarium, with constant checks on the density. Both these operations must be performed with care if the aquarium already contains fish, in order to avoid causing any excessively abrupt changes that could be detrimental to the fish.


Wednesday, February 25, 2015

Aquarium : Fresh Water Temperature, Characteristics,Scientific Values and information

fresh water characteristics

Water, a haven for life:

Without water, there would be no life on our planet. Excessively pure water, however, does not enhance the development of living organisms.

As it is the elements contained within water that make this possible. Getting fish for plants to live and reproduce in an aquarium therefore requires some basic knowledge of the characteristics of water, which, although a constant presence in our daily existence, is often little understood as an environment that supports living organisms.

 

What is Fresh Water?

Fresh water is also known as Continental water, a more accurate term from the scientific point of view. Continental water accounts for only 2.6% of the Earth's water, the rest being made up of seas and oceans. Of this volume, 98% consists of sterile water, in the form of glaciers and underground water, leaving only the water of rivers, lakes, and ponds as shelter for living organisms- barely 2% of the total volume of Continental water.

Fresh Water Temperature

 An important parameter for aquatic life, the temperature regulates the growth of animals and plants and exerts an influence not only on oxygen levels but also on many other factors.

Whereas mammals have a regulated and practically stable internal temperature, that of fish and other aquarium creatures varies according to the temperature of the water around them.

They can survive only at certain temperatures and some species are more sensitive than others to variations in this parameter. The temperatures of fresh tropical waters, ranging from 20 to 30°C, are characterized by less significant variations than those found in temperate regions.

In some places the shade provided by the tropical forest cools the water, while in calm water the temperature goes up under the direct influence of the sunlight.

The mean temperature most often recommended for aquariums is 25°C, and variations of 1 or 2° are of little consequence. Fish are even capable of withstanding even more significant variations for brief periods (under 24 hours).

On the other hand, their metabolism (i.e. their general bodily functioning) is in danger of serious disturbance over any longer periods, and sooner or later they may die. It must also be noted that excessively low temperatures sometimes favor the development of certain diseases.


Fresh Water Oxygen and Carbon  Dioxide

Since air contains around 20% oxygen, even the most oxygenated water rarely contains more than 1% dissolved oxygen. Fish have special organs - branchiae - which allow them to extract most of this (see Anatomy and Biology.

Oxygen contributes, in addition, to the respiration not only of plants but also of organisms which are invisible to the naked eye and often forgot-ten: the bacteria. The latter transform the organic matter emitted from living beings (excreta and various other residues), and these chemical reactions similarly require oxygen.

The oxygen in water comes from the dissolution of the oxygen in the air, a process enhanced by movements in the water produced by wind, currents, or downward flow. The more water is stirred, the more it is oxygenated. Plants also provide oxygen, which they produce through photosynthesis, although this process occurs only by day.

The maximum amount of oxygen that water can contain is determined by its temperature: the higher this is, the less oxygen the water can contain (at 25°C there is 18% less oxygen than at 15°C). Oxygen is measured in mg/liter, and its control is quite a complicated matter. The most turbulent, and therefore the most oxygenated, water contains 8-10 mg/liter, while the most deficient water sometimes has less than 2 mg/liter.

oxygen and carbon dioxide production and consumption


The oxygen content in an aquarium is usually at its maximum, providing the recommendations for stirring the water are followed. The rare problems which do occur are the result of negligence as regards the overall balance of the aquarium (overpopulation of fish, small number of plants), or non-functioning of equipment due to forgetfulness, breakdown, or a power cut. Carbon dioxide derives from the respiration of fish, plants, and bacteria.

Stirring the water enhances its oxygenation, thereby reducing the levels of carbon dioxide in the water, and passing it into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is quite rare in an aquarium, and this can, to some extent, prove prejudicial to plants, as they absorb it by day through photosynthesis to extract the carbon they need to grow.
It is therefore vital to establish a permanent equilibrium between oxygen, carbon dioxide, plants, and fish, although this balance changes at night, when plants stop producing oxygen. Carbon dioxide is also one of the main factors affecting the pH.

Fresh Water PH Values

The pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of water, with the value 7 representing neutrality. Below this level the water is acid, and above it the water is alkaline (or basic). Categorizing water as acid does not mean that it contains dangerous acids.

In forest streams and rivers the water accumulates with acid organic fluid (humic acid) derived from the decomposition of plants (humus), producing an amber yellow color. Generally speaking, aquatic life can exist only between pH 5 and 9.

These extreme values are rarely found in an aquarium, where the pH ranges from 6 to 8 according to the type of water, and usually lies between 6.5 and 7.5. In aquariums, the term acid water corresponds to a pH between 6 and 6.8, while alkaline water refers to one between 7.2 and 8, and a pH between 6.8 and 7.2 is considered neutral.

Variations in pH are mainly the result of biological activity: the carbon dioxide produced by living beings acidifies the water at night and the pH goes down slightly. Once the carbon dioxide has been absorbed by the plants during the day the pH goes up again. Although slight variations are therefore normal, more extreme changes can be a warning signal.



The pH is a good indicator of an aquarium's equilibrium, and it should therefore be measured regularly. A colored marker dipped into a sample of water is used to compare the color obtained with the scale provided. Electronic meters are also now available for testing pH values.

Adjusting the pH 

The pH of domestic water may not always be particularly suited to the fish you have chosen. Furthermore, when an aquarium is in use the pH can rise and fall, slowly but very regularly.

There are some aquarium products on the market that enable adjustments to be made to the pH, but there are other ways of modifying it.

• If the pH is too high - the water can be diluted with another more acid water; - the stirring of the water can be reduced. Carbon dioxide is eliminated less quickly and remains in the water to acidify it. Be careful, because decreasing the stirring also lowers the oxygenation; - the water from the aquarium can be filtered over peat, which will release certain acids. The amount of peat needed to maintain a specific pH value must be found through trial and error, with regular measurements of the pH.

• If the pH is too low - the water can be diluted with another more alkaline, and generally harder water (see Hardness, below); - the agitation of the water can be increased, enhancing the elimination of the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water and therefore lifting the pH; - the water can be filtered over calcareous material, rock, or oyster shells broken into little pieces. In this case, the hardness also increases.

Fresh Water Hardness

fresh water hardness
There are kits on the market that offer
even the novice aquarist the panoply of
tests required to control the majority of
the main parameters for water.
The hardness of water refers to the combination of substances based on calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) that are contained in it. The main substances, known as salts, are carbonates, bicarbonates and sulfates.

Water with zero hardness does not contain any of these salts; this is the case with distilled water. The water in some areas can be particularly hard, mainly due to the presence of limestone (or calcium carbonate).

The hardness of water really depends on the land through which it has passed: the more calcium and magnesium the rocks contain, the harder the water.

The effects of this can be seen in domestic use: a washing machine, for example, will require more detergent. Above certain limits of hardness water is unfit for human consumption or any other use. Water with a low degree of hardness, i.e. containing few calcium and magnesium salts, is considered soft. Water with a high degree of hardness is classified as hard.

Check this Infographic: The hardness of water

Fresh Water Food Chains

In nature Life in water, as on land, is not possible without light. Vegetation (microscopic plankton or plants) absorbs it with carbon dioxide (CO2) and uses the mineral salts, which act as nutrients. This vegetation serves as food for herbivorous or omnivorous fish, which in their turn provide nutrition for carnivorous fish.

From this point, the next link in the chain can be aquatic (dolphin, shark), terrestrial (man), or aerial (bird). When aquatic organisms die, they fall to the bed. Their bodies are degraded by the action of bacteria, the material is recycled into mineral salts, and so the chain comes full circle. (While they are alive, it is their excreta that are recycled.)

fresh water food chains


Fresh Water Peat

Peat derives from the decomposition of vegetation in an acid environment lacking in oxygen. This
fresh water peat Hemigrammus erythrozonus
process, which lasts several centuries, gives rise to a peat bog from which compact, fibrous peat can be extracted. It endows water with both a yellow amber color and acidity, which gives it slightly antiseptic properties. This means that some diseases are less common in acid water.

The use of horticultural peat, which often has been enriched with various products, must be avoided in favor of the peat for aquarium use that is commercially available. Boil it for around 15 minutes before use.

In the Amazon region of South America, the color of the water ranges from amber yellow to brown, due to the leaves and branches floating in it. In an aquarium, peat can be used in the filtering equipment to reproduce the characteristics of this type of water (low hardness, pH under 7, coloring).

The hardness of water is expressed in German degrees (°GH or °DH), not to be confused with Celsius degrees (°C) for temperature: 1°GH is equivalent to 17.9 mg
Ca/liter, or 17.9 parts per million (ppm). The term most often used to classify hardness is general hardness (GH),although total hardness (TH) can also be used.

There are three main categories of water in fishkeeping: - soft water, which is generally acid, at 3°GH or 50 ppm; - medium water, which is neutral or slightly alkaline, at 6°GH or 100 ppm; - hard water, which is highly alkaline, at 12°GH or 200 ppm. We will go on to discover that some fish families can adapt only to certain types of water.


Measuring GH of Fresh Water

A colored indicator is used: the number of drops needed to obtain a change in color indicates the degree of hardness. It should be noted that the degrees of hardness used in analysis kits may vary according to the country in which it was manufactured; in some cases French degrees are used.

These can be converted as follows:
1°Fr=0.56°GH

• How can the degree used by a manufacturer in a product be identified?
To confuse matters further, you may also come across Clark in older books on fishkeeping. The old-fashioned Clark system for hardness was somewhat laborious, being based on measurement of the foam created by a soap solution, and has now become obsolete. If you have any doubts about the units used by the manufacturer of an analysis kit, just measure a GH you already know, such as that of bottled water.

The relationship between GH and CH 

Capeta tetrazona
A Capeta
tetrazona (here
the golden variety)
prefers soft to
medium-hard
water, especially
for reproduction.
We have already seen that significant changes in the pH are prejudicial to aquaticlife, especially if they occur too abruptly. To compensate for this, nature has provided a screening device, the CH (carbonate hardness, i.e. the hardness due to calcium and magnesium carbonates and bicarbonates). The higher this is, the less the risk of any major variations in the pH. and vice versa.

This phenomenon, known as buffering, can therefore only occur in acid fresh water. There is a relationship between the CH and the general hardness: the closer the CH value comes to the GH value, the more balanced the water. If the CH is less than 75% of the GH, you are likely to encounter a problem, and it is therefore not advisable to use water with these characteristics in an aquarium.


Modifying the hardness of fresh water 

Sometimes the water available presents a hardness value inappropriate for its intended use in an aquarium. In most cases, the water will be a little too hard, and so the GH must be brought down for use in a mixed aquarium or a rearing tank.

In other, less common cases, the water can be slightly too soft, and so the GH needs to be raised. • Reducing the GH Water with a low hardness value can be mixed with water that is too hard. There are several alternative sources of water - rain water; - spring and well water; - defrosting water from a refrigerator; - water from melted snow; - distilled water, available in bottles; - some brands of mineral water; - natural flowing fresh water.

The volume of water that can be obtained, and its price, obviously depend on which of these sources is used. Filling a tank with a capacity of several hundred liters with water of a precise hardness can sometimes be a laborious process. A final piece of advice: avoid using water from a domestic softener, as the calcium salts are replaced by other salts.

Osmosed water is an attractive option, but the equipment represents a substantial investment. • Increasing the GH The water in question can be diluted with harder natural water, generally easier to find than soft water, or put some calcareous rocks in the aquarium, regularly monitoring the GH, or filter the water over oyster shells crushed into tiny pieces. Any modification in the hardness of water is matched by a modification in the pH: increasing the hardness of the water also increases its pH, and vice versa.

Obtaining water with a precise hardness Let us suppose we have two types of water, one hard and one soft, with which to "manufacture" an intermediate water: - water A, with a GH of 9°GH; - water B, with a GH of 3°GH; - target water, with a GH of 5°GH. Calculations: GH water A - GH target water = 9 - 5 = 4. GH target water - GH water B = 5 - 3 = 2.

The combination of 4 liters of water B and 2 liters of water A results in 6 liters at 5°GH. Filling a 180 liter tank will require 180 (6 x 30 times this mixture, i.e. 60 liters of water A and 120 liters of water B). Another example with the same water: filling the same tank with water at 7°GH will require 120 liters of water A and 60 liters of water B.

Fresh Water Turbidity

The turbidity of water refers to the presence of suspended matter - either living organisms forming plankton (rare in an aquarium) or inert matter, such as animal or vegetable remains or particles of sediment, particularly mud. The size of this suspended matter ranges from a few thousandths of a millimeter to several millimeters.

In calm, unstirred water it forms sediment at a speed in proportion to its weight. In running or turbulent water, some of the matter remains permanently suspended, giving rise to more pronounced turbidity. In aquariums, where the water is always in motion, systems of varying degrees of sophistication  allow fishkeepers keep their water clear.

The effects of this are entirely positive: - the visual appearance is improved; - the light required by the plants penetrates the water and reaches them more easily; - there is less risk of disease, particularly in the fishes' branchiae; - there is little sedimentation on the base of the tank, reducing both the possibility of any warping due to excessive weight and the decomposition of organic matter.

NITROGENOUS PRODUCTS AND THE NITROGEN CYCLE

 Nitrogen (N) is one of the components of certain substances, largely derived from the excretion of fish, that are dissolved in water. These substances, of varying structural complexity, are quickly converted into ammonia (NH3 or NH4+), which is highly toxic for animals.

At this point oxygen and bacteria intervene to convert the ammonia into nitrites (NO2-), which are also very toxic. Other bacteria, still accompanied by oxygen, transform them in their turn into nitrates (NO3-), slightly toxic for fish but which can be used by plants as nutrients. These transformations, taken as a whole, are referred to as the nitrogen cycle. In nature, land-based elements can also participate (see diagram). As plants are at the base of the food chain, they also take part in the nitrogen cycle.

In an aquarium, the situation is different. Some fish partly feed on plants, but most of them are fed by the aquarist; sometimes there is a surplus of foodstuffs and the nitrogen cycle is altered as a result. It is very important to respect the equilibrium of this cycle. That is why you should not keep too many fish and you should not overfeed them.

It is also a good idea to provide the aquarium with a sufficient amount of vegetation, and to enhance the development of bacteria, while ensuring that the water is well aerated. Partial and regular water changes make it possible to eliminate surplus foodstuffs, various types of organic matter, and any nitrates that have not been used by the plants. A biological filter enhances the development of the nitrogen cycle.

Bacteria in the nitrogen cycle

Rarely found in open water (around 1% of the total count), bacteria colonize essentially the floor and the decor. They feed on nitrogenous compounds in the water, extracting the oxygen from them.When an aquarium is brought into use, bacterial colonization of the environment is a slow process, and so it is advisable not to introduce the selected fish until 2 or 3 weeks have elapsed.

The toxicity of nitrogenous compounds 

The concentration of nitrogenous compounds in an aquarium is higher than in a balanced natural setting, and there are some limits which must not be exceeded (see table above). Ammonia is found in two different forms in water, and the sum of the two must not be more than 0.4 mg/liter. Dissolved NH3 ammonia gas is the most dangerous, although it only appears above a pH of 7 and rarely exceeds 10% of the total ammonia. The more common ionized NH4+ form is slightly less dangerous.

LEVEL OF NITRITES (NO2-) 

No nitrogenous substance should pass the threshold limit in a well-balanced aquarium. As ammonia and nitrates are more difficult to assess, it is the nitrites that must be analyzed regularly. There is a colored marker commercially available, which gives a stronger color according to the amount of nitrites present.

If the latter are too abundant: - either there is a general imbalance (too many fish, too much food in the water) which entails a high production of ammonia and, therefore, nitrites; - or there is a problem connected with the transformation of nitrites into nitrates, often a lack of the oxygen required by bacteria. The level of nitrites, like the pH level discussed above, is a good indicator of the equilibrium of an aquarium, and it is therefore important to measure it regularly.

OTHER DISSOLVED SOLIDS 

A great many other substances are to be found dissolved in water. Their content is generally low and does not pose any problems, and some of them, such as micronutrients, are even very beneficial. This term covers a variety of elements including vitamins and metals, which in tiny quantities are indispensable to life.

Iron, for example, plays a role in the composition of hemoglobin, the red blood cells which transport the oxygen taken in by the branchiae. It also participates in the photosynthesis of plants, which have a tendency to turn yellow if there is an iron deficiency.

Manganese is equally important, as it is one of the components of chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants that allows them to absorb light and develop. There are, of course, other metals that are also naturally present in water, but their concentration hardly ever exceeds a few thousandths of a mg/liter, and some, such as copper, become toxic if it goes beyond this limit.

Origin and quality of fresh water used in aquariums The simplest and cheapest means of obtaining water is turning on a faucet, but there are other possibilities, especially when it comes to obtaining natural water.

• Domestic water As long as water is drinkable, there is no reason why it is not suitable for fish. In some regions the water is sometimes too hard (general hardness above 11°GH), and so the option of mixing it with softer water must be considered. Domestic water must never be introduced in large quantities into an aquarium which already contains fish. It is also advisable to let it settle for 24 hours to eliminate any excess of gas (caused by the pressure). When filling a tank before putting it into operation, this step is not compulsory, as it will not be housing fish immediately. • Natural water Natural water close to home usually shares many of the characteristics of domestic water, as it makes up a large part of the public water supply. However, it should be possible to find water with different characteristics not too far away.

• Spring water This is the most desirable water, as it is the purest, with no suspended material, little or no organic matter and a high bacteriological quality. • Well water This is of a similarly good quality, although it sometimes contains an excess of gas. It can occasionally be slightly ferruginous (containing iron), which favors the growth of plants.

Optimum Characteristics of fresh water  suitable for aquariums

 

ParametersOptimum characteristicsObservations
ColorColorlessYellow-colored water contains organic matter.
TurbidityNoneThe water must be limpid and crystal-clear.
SmellNoneSometimes water containing organic matter has a characteristic smell of humus.
TemperatureUnder 25°CIt is advisable to collect water with a temperature between 5 and 15°C.
pH6.9It should preferably be between 6.5 and 7.5.
OxygenThe maximumThis is the case with springs and streams. Stagnant and still water is not suitable.
HardnessUnder 16.8°GHBeyond 11.2°GH, it must be mixed with fresh water (except in rare cases, for certain fish).
AmmoniaUnder 0.4 mg/literThis value is rarely attained in balanced water.
NitritesUnder 0.1 mg/literThis is the drinking water threshold.
NitratesUnder 50 mg/literThis is the threshold for drinking water, often exceeded in farming areas.

Water Usable in Aquariums

 

Rainwater

Rainwater is soft and acid, so is useful for diluting water that is too hard. It should be collected in plastic containers; if these are put under a gutter, take care not to collect the first water, as this will have cleaned the roof. In urban and industrial areas, rainwater is liable to contain pollutants, and it is therefore not advisable to use it.

 • Stagnant water (ponds) and still water (downriver) Such water can pose a microbiological risk, and it is not advisable to use it.

 • Demineralized and distilled water Their pH is neutral or very slightly acid, with little or no hardness. Their high price means that they are only used for mixing with hard water, or for filling a small rearing aquarium. Do not forget that softened water cannot be used.

 • Bottled water This is often referred to as mineral water - erroneously so, as some brands contain hardly any minerals and are quite soft. These are certainly not used to fill up huge tanks, bottle by bottle, as this would be too expensive and time-consuming, and therefore serve a similar function to that of distilled water.

Characteristics of some bottled waters


The Next Aquarium Article : Sea Water Characteristics and information

Sunday, February 22, 2015

How to buy the right fly fishing rods


In this article:
  • how to choose and buy the right fly rods and reels
  • how to choose and buy the right reels
  • how to choose and buy the right fly line
    How to buy the right fly fishing rods
    How to buy the right fly fishing rods

    how to make a knotted leader (bonus)
Whether you're angling with fly or spinning apparatus, having the right gear can have the results between an effective angling fishing and a baffling one. Purchasing the right apparatus doesn't need to be troublesome, and shouldn't keep you from seeking after trout and salmon.

In this segment you'll figure out how to purchase the correct fly line, select the right fly bar and reel, and select the right leader. You'll additionally figure out how to pick the right spinning or baitcasting rod, reel, and line.

After the greater part of your planning for a day's angling outing, the exact opposite thing you need is to reel in a broken line and not be arranged to alter it on location. The diagrams in this article provides for you accommodating line weight details initially. And after that pictures reveal to you utilizes for particular situations. With this data you'll have the capacity to better arrangement and you'll be better arranged to handle a percentage of the inexorable circumstances that can happen on angling day.

Next, we'll demonstrate to you generally accepted methods to recognize and select the proper tools and instruments to help you perform the little assignments, for example, including tippet, weighting nymphs, keeping dry flies above water, and checking water temperature.

Purchasing the right angling rigging shouldn't be scary. Actually, its the initial move to really getting out on the water.


The most effective method to buy and choose fly rods and reels

Rods

In spinning and baitcasting, its critical to choose the right rod, yet the determination is not as basic as in fly angling. A fly rod pushes the line, which thus impels the fly; if the rod is not matched to the line, throwing is beside unimaginable. At the point when picking a fly rod, consider the folor:
  • Choosing the right rod material.
  • Looking at the rod power
  • Looking at the rod action
  • Choosing  the rod length 

 Choosing the right rod material.


Rods need to give solace, incredible sensitivity open up the adrenaline when fighting with fish. This is the reason rod specialization needs to be handled when calculating. It is occupant for each fisher to know the right rod material for particular techniques and procedures.

Graphite Rods  versus Fiberglass Rods versus Bamboo rods:

In the late 1940s, fiberglass rod changed fly angling. They were impressively less costly than the old bamboo rods. Anyway they had favorable element, they were lighter and stiffer, so they could deal with a fly line all the more effortlessly. With the presentation of graphite in 1972, bar building innovation took an alternate quantum jump. Graphite rods are known to be amazingly delicate and fragile. As a rule this is a tremendous focal point.


Today's graphite rods measure 20 to 25 percent not as much as glass rods of the same solidness, and 40 to 45 percent not as much as bamboo. Hence, graphite rods can be longer and lighter, yet all the more influential. What's more you can cast more remote with less exertion.

Fiberglass once in a while gets negative criticism as large portions of these fly rods are composed off as generally being overwhelming, with the rod action like a carriage whip. That truly isn't a reasonable evaluation whatsoever, since there are some genuine diamonds in vintage fiberglass, furthermore it must be thought seriously about that amid the prime of fiberglass an "ultralight" fly rod was regularly a 5-weight, and most fly rods fabricated around then were 6-, 7-, and 8-weights. Path in those days, yes, they were overwhelming.


The innovation and mastery to fabricate longer and lighter fiberglass fly rods didn't generally show itself completely until the late 1970s, when the material was being stopped by numerous organizations for graphite. Pretty much the time that glass rods configuration was going to blossom, the industry moved pretty much altogether to graphite fly rods, since that material is naturally lighter.

Casting with fiberglass rods has a tendency to be more simpler and more directed to bearing as examined in most forums. In a period of quick action graphite, its anything but difficult to overlook that you should feel your forward and backcast, and that the fly rod is truly expected to do most of the work.

In the event that you are fly casting to appreciate the entire activity and experience how simple it ought to be, then maybe you ought to attempt fiberglass. I for one prescribe any beginner to start with fiberglass. You should do nothing more than slowdown your casting stroke which empowers the fly rod to chip away at it claim. Fiberglass bars may not be known for laser loops, they are useful for distance casting.

Due to the conspicuous favorable circumstances of graphite, less and less glass rods are created nowadays. For the individuals who appreciate the sentiment of angling with a bamboo bar, there are numerous makers and custom bar producers as yet building them. Some old bamboo rods have gotten to be collected artworks, telling costs well into the a huge number of dollars. Bamboo has delighted in resurgence in prevalence in the course of the most recent decade or two, and its doubtful bamboo rods ever will go out of style. Graphite rods are here to stay until a new great advantage overshadows it merits.

Both fiberglass rods and graphite rods are prescribed. Anyway to pick between these two relies upon taste and point of interest.

Looking at the Rod Power.

For peak casting performance, the power or stiffness of your fly rod should match the weight of your fly line. If the rod is too light, it will flex too much and lose its casting power. Too heavy, and it will not flex enough to propel the line.
Most fly rods have a line weight printed near the grip. As a rule, you can use line one size lighter or heavier than the recommended weight.

For high level of casting execution, the power or firmness of your fly rod ought to match the weight of your fly line. On the off chance that the rod is excessively light, it will flex an excess of and lose its throwing force. Excessively substantial, and it won't flex enough to impel the line.

Most fly rods have a line weight printed close to the grip. Generally speaking, you can utilize line one size lighter or heavier than the prescribed weight.

Looking at the Rod Action.

The word"action" may be the most abused term among fishermen. Some mistake action for power; others say "this rod has a pleasant action," implying that it feels great in the hand.

Actually, two separate qualities focus "action." The first is the place the bar twists under a load. The second is the way rapidly it recuperates from a bend, or dampens. These qualities are controlled by the configuration of the decrease of the rod, and the material with which the rod is made. Moderate action rods curve pretty much all through their whole length, and recuperate gradually from a twist. Quick action rods flex most close to the tip, and recoup rapidly from a twist. As a rule, the quickest action bamboo rod will feel significantly slower than even a moderate action graphite rod.

A quicker rod structures a narrower circle, which voyages all the more quickly and has less air safety, bringing about more noteworthy separation and precision. Faster rods additionally "hose" all the more rapidly after the cast, so the tip doesn't skip and toss waves into the line. Waves in the line expand air resistance, diminish distance, and cause a messy delivery.

A slower rod absorbs more shock, a big advantage when fishing dry flies with light tippets. A slower rod makes it easier to control casting distance. Because the loop is not as narrow, the line speed is slower, so you can easily stop the line when the fly is over the target. Nonetheless, the wide loop reduces casting distance considerably.
Unfortunately, there are no industry standards to designate action, and some rod makers don’t even try. One manufacturer’s “slow” rod may have the same action as another “medium” rod. An experienced tackle-shop employee can help you make your decision.

Checking out the Rod Length.

A 7½- to 9-foot (2.3 to 2.7 m) fly rod suits most trout fishing situations, but longer and shorter rods also have their uses.
In the past, anglers shied away from longer rods because they were too heavy. Today’s graphite rods are so light that greater lengths are becoming popular. Long rods give you more casting power, make it easier to mend the line, and help you keep your back cast high enough to avoid streamside brush. Also, with the rod tip high it’s easier to control your line and fly on the drift. Salmon anglers often use two-handed rods called Spey rods, named for Scotland’s legendary Spey River, up to 15 feet (4.6 m) in length, for making long casts, controlling the line on the water, and handling these powerful fish.

Short rods are easier to handle on narrow, brushy streams. They also make it easier to place a fly beneath an overhang, and to land trout in tight spots. Anglers on brush-lined creeks sometimes use fly rods as short as 6 feet (1.8 m).
(middle) up-locking, used on heavier rods to prevent unscrewing, and for more length behind the reel so the spool won’t rub clothing; (bottom) sliding-band, to reduce weight on bamboo rods and light graphite rods.
Grips include (bottom) cigar, for short- to medium-range casting with light rods; (middle) half Wells, with a thicker front for more casting leverage and a raised middle for a better grip; (top) full Wells, with a raised front for even more casting leverage, and a raised middle.


Tuesday, February 17, 2015

What is Deeper Smart Fish Finder

Deeper smart fishfinder is the first of its kind compact, remote sonar, good with 6000+ iOS and Android gadgets, extraordinarily intended to discover the area of fish, profundity, water temperature, base shape and substantially more.

I decided to write about this product because it comfortably sits on the bestsellers position on amazon. Deeper sonar is manufactured by Friday labs. They are located in Lithuania Europe. In 2013 a friend bought this fishfinder for me as a valentine present. Yeah sounds weird since we were not dating :)

I have used many types of fishfinders. Before Deeper my favorite was the garmin echo 500c. I still like it though. But using Deeper smart fishfinder has added more value and speed to my fish catching skills. I have been able to omit the waste of time i used to incur.
Now all i do is connect the app to the product after tossing it to the water from a rod and viola, I start getting my feeds. The pictures are more amazing. There is a representation of the fishes as they pass by. You actually see the bottom of the water, contours and structures. If you haven't used one yet, I suggest you read on. I have personally dedicated this article to fully blog about it.

Deeper utilizes Bluetooth innovation to exchange sonar readings to your cell phone or tablet from up to 150ft/ 45 meters. Bluetooth association empowers lower battery utilizations and no cell information needed for the gadget to work, so you can utilize Internet association on your cell phone or tablet while angling.

With the weight of just 0.22lb/ 100grams and 2.6"/ 65mm measurement, Deeper is littler and lighter than some other conventional sonar. Uniquely intended to fit into your angling supplies fishing container, so you could take your individual sonar anyplace you go and place it in spots most sonars can't, as from kayak, shore, or dock.

Deeper sonar is sufficiently compelling to splendidly work in the profundities from 1.5 ft (0.5 m) to ~130 ft (40 m) underneath the surface in both salt and new waters.


With castable Deeper and its mounting arrangements you can investigate the lake, stream or ocean from each point. Output places other fish discoverers can't reach.

Deeper temperature sensors give precise variances of the water temperature so you generally know the ideal biting time. Deeper's high precision sonar shots uncover the greater part of the fish species with a precious stone clarity and permits you to focus on your prey with a certainty.

Deeper's emphasized innovation gives completely clear, picture-like pictures of the fish targets and base structure with astounding detail straight to your cell phone or tablet. Fish are strikingly uncovered as unmistakably characterized targets and divided from the structures, so you can quickly comprehend of what you see and no understanding required.

Deeper double recurrence peculiarity permits phenomenal perception of the submerged at all profundities in 90 kHz (55°) and 290 kHz (15°) sweep. Wide shaft gives sufficient hunt territory to fish, lure fish and structure. Exact slender shaft gives high precision returns of fish, structure, detail and base profile. With Deeper you can both cast wide or concentrate on the botttom.

You also get the full control of all sonar functions and features with user friendly Deeper mobile app. Adjust the sensitivity of a sonar returns to increase/decrease details displayed, switch between different frequencies for wider or more accurate exploration, put the device into a low power consumption sleep mode or wake it up with your iOS or Android device and much more.

With the application installed, you will have will be able to update your gadget on the pass by utilizing your Android or iOS cell phone or tablet and Deeper application. You'll get the most current gimmicks and best execution from your sonar by staying up with the latest with the most recent programming.

Sharing is now easier with Deeper smart fishfinder. When you catch a monster fish or a big beast? Use Deeper versatile application to take pictures and offer them with your companions anyplace on the planet on Facebook, Twitter and Gmail+.

Deeper Technical  Specifications
Size:2.6"/ 6.5 cm diameter
Compatibility:From iOS 5.0 and Android 2.3 to the latest iOS and Android devices
Construction:ABS
Weight:0.22 lb/ 100 grams
Connection:Wireless Bluetooth connection
Bluetooth Range:Up to ~140 ft - 160 ft/ ~40-50 meters. Depends on the OS and smartphone model.
Depth Range Max/Min:130 ft (40 m) / 2 ft (0.5 m)
Temperature:Water temperature Sensor
Temperature unit:Celsius / Fahrenheit
Operational Temperature:-4F to 104F/ -20C to 40C
Battery:Lithium Polymer, 3.7V Rechargeable; lasts for 4 hours of non stop usage; takes 2 hours to fully charge.
Power Adapter:110V / 240V. Micro USB.
Sonar type:Dual beam
Frequency:290 kHz (15°) / 90 kHz (55°)
Color:Black
Deeper smart fishfinder is one of it's kind. If you really want to catch fishes as fast as you want. This product is the right one.